This information was provided by state coordinators and was collected from surveys of county agents, extension specialists, private consultants and research entomologists. All data are averaged over a total reporting unit. For example, if a unit report represents 100 acres had an 8% loss on 25 of those acres, then in the table summary this shows up as a 2% loss. ((.08 x 25)/100). This type of averaging is used for all data reported, including yields and costs of control. Because of averaging and rounding some individual state summary numbers listed as '0' are slightly larger. Costs are averaged to the nearest cent, bales and acres to the nearest whole number, other numbers are rounded to the nearest .001
Arthropod pests reduced overall yield by 4.18% in 2004. There were 13.5 million acres of cotton planted in 2004, but only 12.1 million acres harvested. Oklahoma at 10.84% reported the greatest percentage loss to insects in 2004. The bollworm/budworm complex was the top pest of 2004 taking 1.23% of the 2004 crop. Almost 82% of the US crop was infested with the complex of which 94% were bollworms. Lygus at 1.06% also exceeded 1% reduction. Fifty-one percent (51%) of US cotton acres was infested by Lygus. Stink bugs were third at 0.588% and Thrips were fourth at 0.559% reduction and infested 94% of US cotton acres. Cotton fleahoppers reduced yields by 0.192%. Two western species, pink bollworm at 0.170% and silverleaf whitefly (Bemesia sp) at 0.115% were 6th and 7th respectively. No other pest exceeded 0.1% reduction. Spider mites at 0.080% were 8th infesting 3.1million acres. Boll weevils at 0.071% were 9th infesting 1.6 million acres. Aphids (0.056%) were 10th in the pest ranking. Total cost of management and loss to insects to the 2004 crop was $1.118 billion or $81.58 per acre. Of those costs approximately $54 are direct insect management costs.
The Cotton Insect Losses Estimates are a simple attempt to arrive at the average cost of control of cotton arthropod pests. We attempt to arrive at the most accurate estimate possible for arthropod management activities, but have also added other costs which are incurred in cotton insect pest management. These 'additional' costs increase the bottom line of expenditures for arthropod pest management - but also more accurately reflect true expenditures. We include 'at planting insecticide costs,'(an estimate of the cost of systemic insecticides applied at planting for control of Thrips and other pests of seedling cotton); 'Bt cotton costs,'(an estimate of the technology fee); 'eradication costs'(which include the maintenance fee in those states which have eradicated the weevil and other eradication projects); and 'scouting costs;' in addition to the traditional 'foliar insecticide costs.' Bales lost are also given a dollar value using 480 pound bales at $0.65 per pound. Remember, these are estimates and may not totally reflect an individual farm or area, but they do reflect trends and serve as a general comparison.
This work is sponsored by the Cotton Foundation and is accomplished only through the diligent effort of the aforementioned coordinators, Dr. Frank Carter, Dr. John Adamczyk and Mr. Gene Burris.